File System Check Error in FortiGate

File System Check Error in FortiGate 5.2.3 and above

In FortiOS 5.2 patch3, the file system check dialogue was introduced in the GUI and it offers the options to restart the unit and perform a file system check or, if desired, to be reminded later for performing the action in a maintenance window.

FortiGate error

File System check is a feature that is checking if the device was not shutdown properly. It will do a disk scan when the system boots up to avoid any potential file system errors.  In fact, if the unit was shut down without using the proper command (#execute shutdown), during the booting sequence, the FortiGate will check internal files for this log event and, if it cannot find it, the message will be shown.

This behavior is by design and there is no option to disable this message.

The message should no longer be seen once the following actions have been completed:

– Check of the file system.
– Reboot of the device.


How to Remove Password from PDF Files

We receive password protected bank statements, credit card statements, mobile bills and salary slips every month. It’s quite OK to have passwords for PDF files that we rarely use but the situation changes as we use the file more frequently. It can be monotonous and tiresome to type the password each time you need to open the PDF file. Even sometimes we need to share these PDF files, in such cases, we can remove the password protection from a PDF file by decrypting it. PDF decryption is very easy but requires specialized software to do that. In this tutorial, we will see how to remove password from PDF file in a distinct method. The easiest and recommended way to remove password is using the Google Chrome browser.

  1. Drag and drop password protected PDF file into Google Chrome browser.
  2. Google Chrome will now prompt you to enter the password of the file. Enter the password and hit Enter to open the file.
  3. Now go to the File menu in Google Chrome and choose Print (or press Ctrl+P on Windows or Cmd+P on Mac). Choose the destination printer as “Save as PDF” and click the Save

Google Chrome will now save the PDF to your PC but without the password protection. If you re-open this PDF , it will open without  prompting password.

source: sandeep singh, Codegena

How to enable Administrator account in Windows 8.1 & Windows 10 Home Single Language

Use the following steps to active administrator account.

  1. Open the command prompt as Administrator

Normally, the command prompt can be opened as a regular user to run commands that don’t require administrative rights. However, if you need to run a command that requires administrative rights, you must open the command prompt window as administrator.

  • The first method of accessing the command prompt as administrator is to right-click on the Start button  1  in the lower-left corner of the screen and select the Command Prompt (Admin) option from the  User menu.

You can also press the Windows key + X to access this menu.


–  The second method involves the Start screen. If you are currently on the Desktop, click the Start button in the lower-left corner of the screen.


On the Start screen, start type “command prompt” (without the quotes). The Search panel displays on the right side of the screen and results of the search display as you type. Right-click on Command Prompt and select Run as administrator from the popup menu.


So now you are opened the command prompt in administrator mode.

2. Type below given command to see the users list:

C:\WINDOWS\System32>net user

3. Unlock the administrator account.

C:\WINDOWS\System32>net user administrator /active: yes

  1. Give a password.

C:\WINDOWS\System32>net user administrator *

(* – type the password)

Source: howtogeek


How to: Determine Which .NET Framework Versions Are Installed

Users can install and run multiple versions of the .NET Framework on their computers. When you develop or deploy your app, you might need to know which .NET Framework versions are installed on the user’s computer.

Note that the .NET Framework consists of two main components, which are versioned separately:

  • A set of assemblies, which are collections of types and resources that provide the functionality for your apps. The .NET Framework and assemblies share the same version number.
  • The common language runtime (CLR), which manages and executes your app’s code. The CLR is identified by its own version number.

To get an accurate list of the .NET Framework versions installed on a computer, you can view the registry.

To find .NET Framework versions by viewing the registry (.NET Framework 1-4)

  1. On the Start menu, choose Run.
  2. In the Open box, enter regedit.exe.

You must have administrative credentials to run regedit.exe.

3. In the Registry Editor, open the following subkey:


The installed versions are listed under the NDP subkey. The version number is stored in the Version entry. For the .NET Framework 4 the Version entry is under the Client or Full subkey (under NDP), or under both subkeys.

1 Frame work

To find .NET Framework versions by viewing the registry (.NET Framework 4.5 and later)

  1. On the Start menu, choose Run.
  2. In the Open box, enter regedit.exe.

You must have administrative credentials to run regedit.exe.

3. In the Registry Editor, open the following subkey:


Note that the path to the Full subkey includes the subkey Net Framework rather than .NET Framework.

2 Framework

Check for a DWORD value named Release. The existence of the Release DWORD indicates that the .NET Framework 4.5 or newer has been installed on that computer.


The value of the Release DWORD indicates which version of the .NET Framework is installed.

Net Frame work

Source: Microsoft

You cannot modify the Hosts file or the Lmhosts file in Windows 7 and Windows 10

When you try to change the Hosts file or the Lmhosts file in Microsoft Windows 10, or Windows 7, you may receive an error message that resembles either of the following.

Error message 1

Access to C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\ hosts was denied

Error message 2

Cannot create the C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts file.
Make sure that the path and file name are correct.

This issue occurs even though you log on by using an account that has administrative credentials.



To work around this issue, follow these steps:

  • Click Start 1, click All Programs, click Accessories, right-click Notepad, and then click Run as administrator.

2If you are prompted for an administrator password or for a confirmation, type the    password, or click Allow or Yes.

  • Open the Hosts file or the Lmhosts file, make the necessary changes, and then click Save on the Edit  If using Windows 7, you will need to click Save on the File menu.

source: Microsoft


Li-Fi stands for Light Fidelity. Li-Fi is a new wireless technology that transmits high-speed data using light (i.e. Visible Light Communication or VLC) rather than radio bands. LiFi is high-speed, bidirectional, networked and mobile wireless communications using light (as opposed to traditional radio frequencies). The term was coined by Prof. Harald Haas and is recognized by the IEEE standardization committee for Optical Wireless Communications.


The term “Li-Fi” (Light Fidelity) is the brainchild of German physicist Harald Haas, who first presented the idea in July 2011 during a TED Talk. Mr. Haas, who is a professor of mobile communications at the University of Edinburgh, founded the company pureLiFi a year after his TED Talk, bringing together groups of researchers who had been researching Li-Fi technology since 2008. The company already has two products, and has recently secured a deal with a French industrial-lighting company Lucibel to utilize Li-Fi in its industrial products from Q3 2016 onward.

Mr. Haas revealed at the Ted Talk that every LED light bulb could be converted into a wireless router with the addition of a small microchip. This is important because aside from transmitting data, Li-Fi proves to be a smart lighting solution, particularly in industrial settings. Illumination and data transmission can all be achieved through what Mr.Haas calls a “cleaner, greener” solution. He claims that in the future, each one of the billions of light bulbs could help transmit Li-Fi in various settings.

With LiFi technology, data travels in the visible light spectrum through LEDs.  This makes it possible to provide wireless internet access at speeds of over 100 Gbps, although this is still in the Lab.

Unlike Wi-Fi network signals, Li-Fi is based on light and can’t penetrate through walls, which makes it more secure from external sniffing. Meanwhile, it also means there is less interference from other devices.

How does VLC work?

When a constant current is applied to an LED light bulb a constant stream of photons are emitted from the bulb which is observed as visible light. If the current is varied slowly the output intensity of the light dims up and down. Because LED bulbs are semi-conductor devices, the current, and hence the optical output, can be modulated at extremely high speeds which can be detected by a photo-detector device and converted back to electrical current. The intensity modulation is imperceptible to the human eye, and thus communication is just as seamless ad RF. Using this technique, high speed information can be transmitted from an LED light bulb.


Radio frequency communication requires radio circuits, antennas and complex receivers, whereas Li-Fi is much simpler and uses direct modulation methods similar to those used in low-cost infra-red communications devices such as remote control units. Infra-red communication is limited in power due to eye safety requirements, whereas LED light bulbs have high intensities and can achieve very large data rates.

Li-Fi allows users to roam between lamps and still have connectivity as well as multiple users connecting to the same light and still getting different data streams.

Li-Fi is different from VLC in:

  • Roaming– allows users to move freely between lights and maintain a Skype Video Call.
  • Multiple Access– a single light can let different people browse the internet at the same time.

Benefits of Li-Fi

 LiFi technology provides many benefits for users including speed, energy efficiency and security.

  • Speed

In our tests, LiFi has produced speed of over 100 Gbps (in a controlled environment).  These speeds can be achieved due to low interference (compared to radio frequencies), and high bandwidth due to the visible light spectrum which is 10,000 times more than the RF spectrum and allows for optimal users coverage no matter the number of users.

  • Security

Wi-Fi signals penetrate walls and ceilings, LiFi signals can only be received in the area lit, yet allows for roaming between lights. LiFi is confined to the illuminated area, providing a very controllable environment. The signals cannot travel through walls and are fully secure – essentially eliminating the threat of data being hacked remotely. There is therefore no risk for remote piracy through the LiFi system. This solution is of great interest to sensitive operations such as R&D, defence, banks, security systems, etc.

  • Energy Efficiency

Energy consumption is minimised via the use of LED illumination, with the transmission of data requiring negligible additional power.

  • Safety – an alternative to radio waves, with potentially harmful effects

Visible light wavelengths are harmless to humans, even beneficial at specific wavelengths. LiFi comes as an alternative to radio waves which is a key characteristic to sensitive environments such as hospitals, medical centres, schools, some industrial installations…

  • Data Density

The area covered by one Wi-Fi access point has 10s or 100s of lights. Each LiFi light can deliver the same speed or greater than a Wi-Fi access point. Therefore, in the same area, LiFi can provide 10x or 100x or 1000x greater wireless capacity. That is Mbps per square meter.

  • Localization

The dense location of lights can be used for positioning and location based services (LBS) to deliver robust positioning and reliable connectivity.


Li-Fi does not interfere with radio signals and can hence be used in areas where interference is an issue, such as during a flight. Li-Fi also operates on the visible light spectrum, which is 10,000 times larger than the more restricted spectrum for radio waves. With a rising number of spectrums being used for Wi-Fi, the technology is soon expected to run out of spectrums to accommodate users. This could lead to data traffic congestion, which is already an issue many will have experienced in the form of low Wi-Fi speeds in crowded areas.

Source: purelifibidnessetcthehackernews